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OMPHALOCELE or EXOMPHALOS
Omphale   Umbilicus
Cancer Risk Syndrome
CORE TERMS
     
Umbo : (Latin) knob, boss, hub ...
Umbilicus : navel, nautic, nausea ...
Ombligo : (Spanish) umbilicus
Omphalon : (Greek), "the center of a thing", ...
Omphalocele : malformed umbilical cord with a membranous sac  (amnion-peritoneum lined) containing bowel loops and  often portions of the liver.
Menigocele : cele of meninges
Cel or coel : prefix for cavitated tumor as well as celestial hollow, hallow ...  coeliac, ... clitoris ... celibacy ...  cellular
Celom or coelom : early embryonal cavity
Cecum or coecum : proximal blind large bowel or colon
Cele : (Prefix) cavitated mass or tumor, hernia
Cell : hiding or small living space
     
     
RELATED TERMS
     
Gastroschisis   exstrophy of "belly" "viscera" through an abdominal wall gap
     

ABDOMINAL EXSTROPHIES

Abdominal wall malformations or "birth defects" are common. Umbilical and inguinal herniations or "celes" and abdominal wall defects such as gastroschisis and omphalocele can be noted before birth. Such defects may "leak"  alfa-feto-protein (AFP) which can be detected in maternal blood and call for prenatal imaging studies in search of malformations of the spine, abdominal wall and other "leaky" fetal anomalies.

The axis umbilicus-navy-nautic-navel-nausea is a reminder that pregancy often causes "stomach sickness" and emesis.
   

Omphale Bossing Hercules.

 

The umbilical cord anchors the fetus to the placenta. In adults what remains is the navel or a protrusion or "boss" or "umbo".

In Greek OMPHALOS or UMBO in Latin denote anchoring, "boss", prominence, knob, navel, and umbilicus (a knob-like structure).

The terms OMPHALOCELE or exomphalos point to OMPHALE who was the BOSS and mistress of Hercules. Mutual love helped OMPHALE to boss, restrain and domesticate Heracles. His boisteros and violent nature bacame "anchored" by Omphale. This story is immortalized in classic mythology and is illustrated by painters like Rubens and Lemoyne.

The OMPHALOS was the navel or hub of the Hellenistic world and was represented by a stone proximal to the temple of Apollo in Delphi.

In biology and Medicine, the OMPHALOS is the center of the organism and CELE or KELE refer to a cavitated tumor or herniation at the point where the umbilicus would normally attach. (Humanities and Fine Arts continued ...)


OMPHALOCELE or EXOMPHALOS

Omphalocele is a "cavitated turmor" (cele) within a malformed omphalon or umbilical cord. The cord inserts on a sac or "cele" protruding from the abdomen and containing lops of bowel and often portions of the liver.
 
                      

Omphaloceles often are associated with other malformations. Click and see: Sac (amniotic and peritoneal membranes); umbilical cord inserting at the apex; exstrophy of abdominal viscera into the sac.

The fetus-newborn with omphalocele has an anterior abdominal sac covered by membranes (amnion-peritoneum) containing intestines. The contents of the "cele" may also include some portions of the liver and the umbilical cord inserts at the apex of the hernia. In most instances (~60%) there are other associated congenital defects particularly malrotation of the intestines, intestinal atresia, imperforate anus, cardiovascular and genitourinary anomalies. Notably, fetal chromosomal anomalies are also common. The Exomphalos - Macroglossia combination may be a signal of a high cancer risk syndrome (Beckwith Wiedemann).
 
Omphalocele
   

Click and see: An infant with dysmorphic facial features; dysmorphic ear; perhaps a frontal encephalocele; an omphocele; malformed genitalia; a lower spine malformation, perhaps a schisis or cleft; a dysmorphic penis; and a rocker bottom foot with prominent heel. Multiple anomalies suggest a chromosomal abnormality syndrome.

Note that GASTROSCHISIS is a lateral or "para"-medial malformation, wrongfully referred to, at times, as "PARA-OMPHALOCELE" (there is no "CELE"); the herniated gut is not contained in a sac; the defect is most often on the right of the cord or umbilicus; and that associated malformations and chromosomal anomalies are rare. (see clinical photo gallery)


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